Biology Research Paper Topics

Biology Research Paper TopicsSee our list of biology research paper topics. Biology (from the Greek bios, meaning “life”) is the science of all forms of life, including plants, animals, and microorganisms. Biology is composed of many fields, including microbiology, the study of microscopic organisms such as viruses and bacteria; cytology, the study of cells; embryology, the study of development; genetics, the study of heredity; biochemistry, the study of the chemical structures in living things; morphology, the study of the anatomy of plants and animals; taxonomy, the identification, naming, and classification of organisms; and physiology, the study of how organic systems function and respond to stimulation. Biology often interacts with other sciences, such as psychology. For example, animal behaviorists would need to understand the biological nature of the animal they are studying in order to evaluate a particular animal’s behavior.

Biology Research Paper Topics

  1. Adaptation
  2. Algae
  3. Amino acid
  4. Amoeba
  5. Amphibians
  6. Anatomy
  7. Animal
  8. Antibody and antigen
  9. Arachnids
  10. Arthropods
  11. Bacteria
  12. Behavior
  13. Biochemistry
  14. Biodegradable
  15. Biodiversity
  16. Biological warfare
  17. Biome
  18. Biophysics
  19. Biosphere
  20. Biotechnology
  21. Birds
  22. Birth
  23. Birth defects
  24. Blood
  25. Botany
  26. Brain
  27. Butterflies
  28. Canines
  29. Carbohydrate
  30. Carcinogen
  31. Cell
  32. Cellulose
  33. Cetaceans
  34. Cholesterol
  35. Chromosome
  36. Circulatory system
  37. Clone and cloning
  38. Cockroaches
  39. Coelacanth
  40. Contraception
  41. Coral
  42. Crustaceans
  43. Cryobiology
  44. Digestive system
  45. Dinosaur
  46. Disease
  47. Ear
  48. Embryo and embryonic development
  49. Endocrine system
  50. Enzyme
  51. Eutrophication
  52. Evolution
  53. Excretory system
  54. Eye
  55. Felines
  56. Fermentation
  57. Fertilization
  58. Fish
  59. Flower
  60. Forestry
  61. Forests
  62. Fungi
  63. Genetic disorders
  64. Genetic engineering
  65. Genetics
  66. Heart
  67. Hibernation
  68. Hormones
  69. Horticulture
  70. Human Genome Project
  71. Human evolution
  72. Immune system
  73. Indicator species
  74. Insects
  75. Integumentary system
  76. Invertebrates
  77. Kangaroos and wallabies
  78. Leaf
  79. Lipids
  80. Lymphatic system
  81. Mammals
  82. Mendelian laws of inheritance
  83. Metabolism
  84. Metamorphosis
  85. Migration (animals)
  86. Molecular biology
  87. Mollusks
  88. Muscular system
  89. Mutation
  90. Nervous system
  91. Nucleic acid
  92. Osmosis
  93. Parasites
  94. Photosynthesis
  95. Phototropism
  96. Physiology
  97. Plague
  98. Plankton
  99. Plant
  100. Primates
  101. Proteins
  102. Protozoa
  103. Puberty
  104. Rain forest
  105. Reproduction
  106. Reproductive system
  107. Reptiles
  108. Respiration
  109. Respiratory system
  110. Rh factor
  111. Seed
  112. Sexually transmitted diseases
  113. Skeletal system
  114. Smell
  115. Snakes
  116. Speech
  117. Sponges
  118. Taste
  119. Touch
  120. Tree
  121. Tumor
  122. Vaccine
  123. Vertebrates
  124. Virus
  125. Vitamin
  126. Wetlands
  127. Yeast

History of Biological Science

The history of biology begins with the careful observation of the external aspects of organisms and continues with investigations into the functions and interrelationships of living things.

The fourth-century B.C. Greek philosopher Aristotle is credited with establishing the importance of observation and analysis as the basic approach for scientific investigation. He also organized the basic principles of dividing and subdividing plants and animals, known as classification. By A.D. 200, studies in biology were centered in the Arab world. Most of the investigations during this period were made in medicine and agriculture. Arab scientists continued this activity throughout the Middle Ages (400–1450).

Scientific investigations gained momentum during the Renaissance (a period of rebirth of art, literature, and science in Europe from the fourteenth to the seventeenth century). Italian Renaissance artists Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) and Michelangelo (1475–1564) produced detailed anatomical drawings of human beings. At the same time, others were dissecting cadavers (dead bodies) and describing internal anatomy. By the seventeenth century, formal experimentation was introduced into the study of biology. William Harvey (1578–1657), an English physician, demonstrated the circulation of the blood and so initiated the biological discipline of physiology.

So much work was being done in biological science during this period that academies of science and scientific journals were formed, the first being the Academy of the Lynx in Rome in 1603. The first scientific journals were established in 1665 in France and Great Britain.

The invention of the microscope in the seventeenth century opened the way for biologists to investigate living organisms at the cellular level— and ultimately at the molecular level. The first drawings of magnified life were made by Francesco Stelluti, an Italian who published drawings in 1625 of a honeybee magnified to 10 times its normal size.

During the eighteenth century, Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus (1707–1778) developed a system for naming and classifying plants and animals that replaced the one established by Aristotle (and is still used today). Based on his observations of the characteristics of organisms, Linnaeus created a ranked system in which living things were grouped according to their similarities, with each succeeding level possessing a larger number of shared traits. He named these levels class, order, genus, and species. Linnaeus also popularized binomial nomenclature, giving each living thing a Latin name consisting of two parts—its genus and species— which distinguished it from all other organisms. For example, the wolf received the scientific name Canis lupus, while humans became Homo sapiens.

In the nineteenth century, many explorers contributed to biological science by collecting plant and animal specimens from around the world. In 1859, English naturalist Charles Darwin (1809–1882) published The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, in which he outlined his theory of evolution. Darwin asserted that living organisms that best fit their environment are more likely to survive and pass their characteristics on to their offspring. His theory of evolution through natural selection was eventually accepted by most of the scientific community.

French microbiologist and chemist Louis Pasteur (1822–1895) showed that living things do not arise spontaneously. He conducted experiments confirming that microorganisms cause disease, identified several disease-causing bacteria, and also developed the first vaccines. By the end of the nineteenth century, the germ theory of disease was established by German physician Robert Koch (1843–1910), and by the early twentieth century, chemotherapy (the use of chemical agents to treat or control disease) was introduced. The use of antibiotics became widespread with the development of sulfa drugs in the mid-1930s and penicillin in the early 1940s.

From the nineteenth century until the end of the twentieth century, the amount of research and discovery in biology has been tremendous. Two fields of rapid growth in biological science today are molecular biology and genetic engineering.

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