Anthropology Research Topics

This collection of anthropology research paper topics is aimed to provide students and researchers with a comprehensive list of topics within this vast field of study. This list classifies main topics in anthropology into the following categories: Applied Anthropology, Archaeology, Cultural/Social Anthropology, Evolution, Linguistics, Paleontology, Philosophy, Psychology, Physical/Biological Anthropology, Religion/Theology, Sociology, Research/Theoretical Frameworks. Some topics may appear in more than one category.

Anthropology is the scientific study of humankind’s origin, biology, and culture. It encompasses a vast—and some might say, untidy—body of knowledge that has rarely been organized. In real-life terms, an informal but yawning gap has existed between those who study culture, especially of present and past historically known societies, and those who wrestle with the issues of human origin.

Anthropology Research Paper Topics

Applied Anthropology Research Paper Topics

Action anthropology
Aesthetic appreciation
Affirmative action
ALFRED: The ALlele FREquency Database
Alternative health care
Anthropology and business
Anthropology and the Third World
Artificial intelligence
Bioethics and anthropology
Bioinformatics
Biomedicine
Biometrics
Carbon-14 dating
Careeers in anthropology
Clinical anthropology
Counseling
Dating techniques
Demography
Dendrochronology
Dispute resolution
DNA testing
Ecology and anthropology
Economic anthropology
Economics and anthropology
Environmental ethics
Ethics and anthropology
Ethnoecology
Ethnomedicine
Ethnopharmacology
Ethnopsychiatry
Ethnoscience
Ethnosemantics
Field methods
Forensic anthropology
Forensic artists
Geomagnetism
History of anthropology
Human behavioral ecology
Human rights and anthropology
Human rights in the global society
Intercultural education
Irrigation
Justice and anthropology
Law and anthropology
Law and society
Medical genetics
Multiculturalism
Museums
Native studies
New dating techniques
Paleomagnetism
Political anthropology
Political economy
Potassium-Argon dating
Practicing anthropology
Radiometric dating techniques
Relative dating techniques
Rights of indigenous peoples today
Social Anthropology
Tutankhamun and Zahi Hawass
Twin studies
United Nations and anthropology
Uranium-Lead dating
Urban anthropology
Urban ecology
Visual Anthropology
Women’s studies
Y-STR DNA
Zoos

Applied anthropology, in its broader sense, is distinguished primarily from academic anthropology as anthropological methods and data put to use outside of the classroom. This is not to say that all anthropological methods and data put to use outside of the classroom is applied anthropology; field research also is anthropological methods and data put to use outside of the classroom, but it can be used for academic purposes, as well as for practical application. Applied anthropology is used to solve practical problems outside of the academic world, and it has appeared under such names as action anthropology, development anthropology, practicing anthropology, and advocacy anthropology among others. Rear more about applied anthropology.

Archaeology Research Paper Topics

Abu Simbel
Acheulean culture
Acropolis
Altamira cave
Ancient Crete
Ancient Egypt
Ancient Rome
Angkor Wat
Archaeology
Archaeology and gender studies
Archaeology of war
Architectural anthropology
Atapuerca
Aurignacian culture
Aztec agriculture
Babylon
Biblical archaeology
Blombos cave
Burial mounds
Cave art
Celtic Europe
Chichen Itza
Clovis culture
Coliseum
Copper age
Egyptology
Environmental archaeology
Eoliths
Excavation
Fa Hien cave
Fayoum culture
Folsom culture
Ghost towns
Graves
Great Wall of China
Hand axes
Harappa
Historicism
History of Anthropology
History of city
Indus civilization
Iron age
Jarmo
Koba
Lascaux cave
Lazaret cave
Levalloisian tradition
Llano culture
Machu Picchu
Maritime archaeology
Mayas
Medieval archaeology
Mesolithic cultures
Mesopotamian civilization
Metallurgy
Middens
Modjokerto
Mohenjo Daro
Monte Verde
Mummies and mummification
Museums
National Museum of Anthropology
Natufian culture
Nazca culture
Neandertal burials
Neandertal evidence
Neandertal sites
Neolithic cultures
Ochre
Ohio Hopewell
Oldowan culture
Olduvai Gorge
Olmecs
Orce
Petra
Petroglyphs
Pictographs
Pottery and ceramics
Prehistory
Pu’uhonua o Honaunau
Pyramids
Ramses II
Rapa Nui
Rock art
Sahara anthropology
Salvage archaeology
Sangiran
Shanidar cave
Stonehenge
Sumerian civilization
Taj Mahal
Technology
Temples
Tenoctitlan
Terra Amata
Tikal
Tiwanaku [Tiahuanaco]
Tools and evolution
Troy
Tutankhamun and Zahi Hawass
Ubirr
Ur
Urbanism in ancient Egypt
Uxmal
Venus of Willendorf
Vikings
Zafarraya cave
Ziggurats
Zooarchaeology

Archaeology is the study of human cultures through the study of material and environmental remains. The word, derived from ancient Greek, means “the study of antiquity.” Archaeology is one of the four subfields of anthropology, together with biological anthropology, linguistic anthropology, and social/cultural anthropology. Archaeological remains can take many forms, two of the basic ones being artifacts (any object altered by human hands) and faunal remains, or midden (food remnants such as bone and shell). Artifacts can be anything from simple flaked stone tools and pottery sherds to the most elaborate and priceless objects found in such treasure troves as the tomb of Tutankhamun. These finds constitute the archaeological record, which archaeologists then piece together to interpret as much as they can about the cultures they are studying. Read more about archaeology.

Cultural and Social Anthropology Research Paper Topics

Aborigines
Agricultural revolution
Aleuts
Algonguians
Altamira cave
Anasazi
Anthropology of war
Aotearoa (New Zealand)
Ape culture
Argentina
Asante
Asia
Athabascan
Australia
Australian aborigines
Aymara
Balkans
Baluchistan
Berdache
Brazil
Bride price
Cannibalism
Caribs
Caste system
Celtic Europe
Chachapoya Indians
Chants
Characteristics of culture
Childhood
Childhood studies
Clans
Class societies
Collectors
Complex Societies
Configurationalism
Copper Age
Cross-cultural research
Cuba
Cults
Cultural adaptation
Cultural conservation
Cultural constraints
Cultural convergence
Cultural ecology
Cultural relativism
Cultural traits
Cultural tree of life
Culture
Culture and personality
Culture area concept
Culture change
Culture of poverty
Culture shock
Cyberculture
Darkness in El Dorado controversy
Diffusionism
Division of labor
Dowry
Egalitarian societies
El Ceren
Elders
Emics
Endogamy
Eskimo acculturation
Eskimos
Ethnocentrism
Ethnographer
Ethnographic fieldwork
Ethnographic writing
Ethnography
Ethnohistory
Ethnology
Etics
Eudyspluria
Exogamy
Extended family
Feasts and Festivals
Feuding
Fiji
Folk culture
Folk speech
Folk speech
Folkways
Forms of family
French structuralism
Functionalism
Gangs
Genocide
Gerontology
Globalization
Great Wall of China
Guarani Nandeva Indians
Gypsies
Haidas
Haiti
Hinduism
History of Anthropology
Homosexuality
Hopi Indians
Horticulture
Hottentots
Huari [Wari]
Human competition and stress
Human life cycle
Ik
Indonesia
Informants
Inoku Village
Intelligence
Intensive agriculture
Inuit
IQ tests
Iron Age
Iroquois
Irrigation
Israel
Jewelry
Jews
Kibbutz
Kinship and descent
Kinship terminology
Koba
Kula ring
Kulturkreise
Kung Bushmen
Kwakiutls
Labor
Language and culture
Lapps
Lascaux cave
Maasai
Mana
Manioc beer
Ma-ori
Marquesas
Marriage
Matriarchy
Mbuti Pygmies
Memes
Mexico
Miami Indians
Migrations
Modal personality
Mongolia
Monogamy
Mores
Multiculturalism
Mundugamor
Music
Native Peoples of Central and South America
Native Peoples of the Great Plains
Native Peoples of the United States
Navajo
Nomads
Northern Iroquoian Nations
Nuclear family
Objectivity in ethnography
Ojibwa
Oldowan culture
Olmecs
Omaha Indians
Onas
Oral literature
Orality and anthropology
Ornamentation
Pacific rim
Pacific seafaring
Panama
Patriarchy
Peasants
People’s Republic of China and Taiwan
Peyote rituals
Plant cultivatiion
Political organizations
Political science
Polyandry
Polygamy
Polygyny
Polynesians
Population explosion
Potlatch
Qing, the Last Dynasty of China
Quechua
Rank and status
Rank Societies
Rarotonga
Rites of passage
Role and status
Sambungmachan
Samburu
Samoa
San Bushmen
Sardinia
Sartono
Secret societies
Segmentary lineage systems
Sex identity
Sex roles
Sexual harassment
Sexuality
Siberia
Simulacra
Slash-and-burn agriculture
Slavery
Social structures
Sociobiology
Stereotypes
Structuralism
Subcultures
Sudanese society
Symboling
Tahiti
Taj Mahal
Tasmania
Technology
Textiles and clothing
Tierra del Fuego
Tikopia
Tlingit
Tlingit culture
Tonga
Transcultural psychiatry
Travel
Ubirr
Untouchables
Urban legends
Vanishing cultures
Venezuela
Venus of Willendorf
Verification in ethnography
Villages
Work and skills
Yabarana Indians
Yaganes
Yanomamo
Zande
Zapotecs
Zulu
Zuni Indians

Cultural anthropology is the study of human patterns of thought and behavior, and how and why these patterns differ, in contemporary societies. Cultural anthropology is sometimes called social anthropology, sociocultural anthropology, or ethnology. Cultural anthropology also includes pursuits such as ethnography, ethnohistory, and cross-cultural research. Read more about cultural anthropology.

Evolution Research Paper Topics

Ape biogeography
Aquatic ape hypothesis
Arboreal hypothesis
Arc of evolution
Australopithecines
Biological adaptation
Biological anthropology
Biological anthropology and neo-Darwinism
Catastrophism
Charles Darwin
Cladistics
Creationism versus geology
Darwin and Germany
Darwin and India
Darwin and Italy
Darwinism versus Lamarckism
Dinosaurian hominid
Disbelief in evolution
Dropithecus
Dynamic integrity
Evolution education controversy
Evolution of primate brain
Evolutionary anthropology
Evolutionary epistemology
Evolutionary ethics
Evolutionary ontology
Evolutionary psychology
Extinction
Fossil record
Fossils
Galapagos Islands
Gigantopithecus
Hominid taxonomy
Hominoids
Homo antecessor
Homo erectus
Homo ergaster
Homo habilis
Homo sapiens
Human canopy evolution
Human evolution
Human genetics
Humans and dinosaurs
India and evolution
Issues in hominization
Kenyanthropus platyops
Kenyapithecus wickeri
Lucy reconstruction models
Mass extinctions
Meganthropus
Models of evolution
Modern Darwinism
Molecular evolution
Monkey Trial [1925]
Monogenesis versus polygenesis
Morphology versus molecules in evolution
Narmada man
Natural selection
Neandertal evidence
Neandertals
Neo-Darwinism
Non-Darwinian evolutionary mechanisms
Orangutan-human evolution
Oreopithecus
Organic evolution
Origin of life
Origin of Neo-Darwinism
Primate extinction
Primate genetics
Primate morphology and evolution
Russia and evolution
Sahelanthropus tchadensis
Sexual selection
Social Darwinism
State Darwin Museum, Moscow, Russia
Theories
Uniformitarianism
Zinjanthropus boisei

The term ‘evolution’ is widely used to denote the development through time of societies, cultures, and more especially of living species. It is often contrasted with the view that these entities were divinely created as we see them today, and is routinely (but incorrectly according to modern biological theory) associated with the idea of progress. This article outlines the various models of evolution that have been suggested to account for the development of life and social organization, and then shows how the theories were formulated and popularized. Particular attention is paid to the work of Charles Darwin, whose theory of biological evolution by natural selection is now seen as the most influential expression of the basic idea of natural development. However, non- Darwinian evolutionary ideas also played a role in biology and were perceived to have implications for social evolution. Read more about evolution.

Linguistics Research Paper Topics

Anatomy and physiology of speech
Animal language
Ape communication
Ape intelligence
Ape language
Artificial intelligence
Chants
Classification of language
Cognitive science
Computer languages
Computers and humankind
Counseling
Culture
Ethnographic semantics
Ethnographic writing
Ethnosemantics
Folk speech
Folk speech
Generative grammar
Global language
Glottochronology
Historical linguistics
History of anthropology
Intelligence
Kanzi
Kinship terminology
Koko (lowland gorilla)
Language
Language and biology
Language and culture
Linguistic reconstruction
Memes
Myths and mythology
Oral literature
Orality and anthropology
Origin of language
Paralanguage
Paralinguistic communication
Phonetics
Phonology
Protolanguage
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
Sociolinguistics
Sociology of language use
Swahili
Symboling
Transformational lingusitics
Types of language
Universals in culture
Universals in language
Vanishing languages
Washoe

Linguistic anthropology examines the links between language and culture, including how language relates to thought, social action, identity, and power relations. It is one of the four traditional subfields of American anthropology, sharing with cultural anthropology its aims of explaining social and cultural phenomena, with biological anthropology its concern over language origins and evolution, and with archaeology the goal of understanding cultural histories. Linguistic anthropology has developed through international work across social science disciplines, as researchers attend to language as a key to understanding social phenomena. The discipline overlaps most closely with the sociolinguistic subfield of linguistics. But while sociolinguistics generally considers social factors in order to explain linguistic phenomena, linguistic anthropology aims to explain social and cultural phenomena by considering linguistic information. Read more about linguistic anthropology.

Paleontology Research Paper Topics

Atapuerca
Australopithecines
Dryopithecus
Fa Hien cave
Fossil apes
Fossil record
Fossils
Gigantopithecus
Graves
Hominid taxonomy
Hominoids
Homo antecessor
Homo erectus
Homo ergaster
Homo habilis
Homo sapiens
Human evolution
Human paleontology
Humans and dinosaurs
Issues in hominization
Java man
Kennewick man
Kenyanthropus platyops
Kenyapithecus wickeri
Lazaret cave
Lucy reconstruction models
Meganthropus
Mungo lady/man
Neandertal burials
Neandertal evidence
Neandertal sites
Neandertals
Olduvai Gorge
Oreopithecus
Paleoanthropology
Paleoecology
Palynology
Sahelanthropus tchadensis
Shanidar cave
Siwalik Hills
Taphonomy
Xenophanes
Zafarraya cave
Zinjanthropus boisei
Zooarchaeology

To anyone with a rudimentary understanding of paleontology and anthropology, it may not be readily apparent that these disciplines can be in any way related to one another or useful in informing the other’s primary interests. Anthropology, broadly speaking, is concerned with the study of human culture and behavior, with data provided directly by investigations of modern human populations, as well as historical and ethnographic texts and objects. Paleontology, however, is the investigation of the history of fossil flora and fauna and is, as such, allied closely with geological sciences. Read more about paleontology.

Philosophy and Anthropology

Altruism
Bruno, Giordano
Buber,Martin
Categorical imperative
Comte, Auguste
Condorcet,Marguis de
Critical realism
Deleuze, Gilles
Dennett, Daniel C.
Derrida, Jacques
Dewey, John
Empedocles
Engels, Friedrich
Enlightenment versus postmodernism
Enlightenment, age of
Entelechy
Environmental ethics
Environmental philosophy
Essentialism
Ethics and anthropology
Evolutionary epistemology
Evolutionary ethics
Evolutionary ontology
Feuerbach, Ludwig
Fromm, Erich
Hegel, G.W. F.
Heidegger, Martin
Henri Bergson
Heraclitus
Hermeneutics
Hobbes, Thomas
Human dignity
Human excellence
Humanism, secular
India, philosophies of
Integrity, dynamic
Kant, Immanuel
Kropotkin, Prince Peter A.
Lucretius
Marx, Karl
Marxism
Naturalism
Neo-Marxism
Nietzsche, Friedrich
Pantheism
Philosophy, dynamic
Popper, Karl
Positivism
Postmodernism
Pragmatism
Science, philosophy of
Spencer, Herbert
Teilhard de Chardin, Pierre
Teleology
Theories
Time
Unamuno,Miguel de
Vernadsky, Vladimir Ivanovich
Whitehead, Alfred North
Xenophanes

Modern philosophical anthropology originated in the 1920s. During the 1940s it became the representative branch of German philosophy. It arose with, and has absorbed, Lebensphilosophie, existentialism, and phenomenology, although it is not identical with them. It has affinities with pragmatism and the sociology of knowledge. Although it is historically based on certain German traditions, it is also indebted to, and largely anticipated by, the eighteenth-century “science of human nature.” It combines the critical traditions of the Enlightenment with an emphasis on dogmatic certitude. Read more about philosophical anthropology.

Psychology and Anthropology

Agression
Alienation
Altruism
Ape agression
Ape cognition
Ape communication
Ape intelligence
Ape language
Apollonian
Artificial intelligence
Childhood
Civil disobedience
Cognitive ethology
Cognitive science
Collective behavior
Confirgurationalism
Conflict
Consciousness
Counseling
Crime
Criminology and genetics
Cross-cultural research
Cultural constraints
Cultural relativism
Culture and personality
Culture shock
Dementia
Deviance
Enculturation
Ethnocentrism
Ethnopsychiatry
Eudysphoria
Evolutionary ethics
Evolutionary psychology
Folkways
Forensic artists
Forensic psychologists
Friendships
Gangs
Human behavioral ecology
Human competition and stress
Human excellence
Incest taboo
Intelligence
Intelligence and genetics
IQ tests
Kanzi
Koko (lowland gorilla)
Modal personality
Mores
Nationalism
Neo-Freudianism
Neurotheology
Norms
Psychic unity of humankind
Psychology and genetics
Reciprocity
Sex identity
Sex roles
Sexuality
Taboos
Territoriality
Transcultural psychiatry
Twin studies
Washoe
Xenophobia

Constructs like “identity,” “self-representation, ” and “personhood” abound within sociocultural anthropology generally, but such terms are typically applied to culture groups rather than to individuals. More familiar to psychologists would be the concepts and analyses used in the specialty labeled psychological anthropology, which in broadest form explores the relationships between psychological phenomena and their social and cultural contexts. Some of the primary theoretical orientations in psychological anthropology follow more or less closely on traditional perspectives in psychology, but others diverge radically and claim a central and essential place for cultural content and process in trying to account for psychological functioning. Among the former are general behavioral theory (including many standard conceptualizations from developmental and social psychology and personality theory) , cognitive anthropology, evolutionary thought, and psychoanalytic approaches; and among the latter are cultural psychology, the closely related activity theory, and ethnopsychology. Read more about psychology and anthropology.

Physical and Biological Anthropology Research Paper Topics

Acheulean culture
Altamira cave
Anatomy and physiology of speech
Anthropometry
Ape agression
Ape biogeography
Ape cognition
Ape communication
Ape intelligence
Aquatic ape hypothesis
Arboreal hypothesis
Artificial life
Atapuerca
Aurignacian culture
Australopithecines
Baboons
Biological adaptation
Biological anthropology and neo-Darwinism
Biomedicine
Biometrics
Bipedal locomotion
Blood groups
Bonobos
Bonobos in captivity
Brachiation
Cebids
Cercopithecines
Chimpanzees
Chimpanzees and bonobos
Chimpanzees in captivity
Colobines
Craniometry
Dinosaurian hominid
Diseases
DNA molecule
DNA recombinant
DNA testing
Dryopithecus
El Ceren
Eugenics
Evolution of primate brain
Forensic anthropology
Fossil apes
Gibbons
Gigantopithecus
Gorillas
Gorillas in captivity
Graves
Greater apes
Groooming
Hand axes
History of anthropology
HIV/AIDS
Hominid taxonomy
Hominization
Hominoids
Homo antecessor
Homo erectus
Homo ergaster
Homo habilis
Homo sapiens
Howling monkeys
Human brain
Human canopy evolution
Human diversity
Human evolution
Human genetics
Human Genome Project
Human mutants
Human osteology
Human paleontology
Human variation
Humans and dinosaurs
Hylobates
Iceman
Java man
Kanzi
Kennewick man
Kenyanthropus platyops
Kenyapithecus wickeri
Koko (lowland gorilla)
Lascaux cave
Lazaret cave
Lemurs
Lesser apes
Lorises
Lucy reconstruction models
Macaques
Marmosets
Meganthropus
Mitochrondrial Eve
Mummies and mummification
Mungo lady/man
Museums
Narmada man
Neandertal burials
Neandertal evidence
Neandertal sites
Neandertals
New World monkeys
Ngandong
Old World monkeys
Oldowan culture
Olduvai Gorge
Orangutan-human evolution
Orangutans
Orangutans in captivity
Oreopithecus
Origin of bipedality
Paleoanthropology
Pongids
Population explosion
Primate behavioral ecology
Primate brain
Primate conservation
Primate extinction
Primate genetics
Primate locomotion
Primate morphology and evolution
Primate taxonomy
Primatology
Prosimians
Quadrupedalism in primates
RNA molecule
Sahelanthropus tchadensis
Sambungmachan
Sangiran
Sasquatch
Saving chimpanzees
Saving gorillas
Shanidar cave
Siamangs
Sickle-cell anemia
Siwalik Hills
Sociobiology
Spider monkeys
Tamarins
Tarsiers
Territoriality in primates
Threats to orangutan survival
Tools and evolution
Treeshrews
Twin studies
Washoe
Yeti
Zinjanthropus boisei
Zoos

Biological anthropology is concerned with the origin, evolution and diversity of humankind. The field was called physical anthropology until the late twentieth century, reflecting the field’s primary concern with cataloging anatomical differences among human and primate groups. Biological anthropology is one of the four subfields of anthropology, together with archaeology, linguistic anthropology, and social/cultural anthropology. Under the name of biological anthropology, it is an ever-broadening field that encompasses the study of: human biological variation; evolutionary theory; human origins and evolution; early human migration; human ecology; the evolution of human behavior; paleoanthropology; anatomy; locomotion; osteology (the study of skeletal material); dental anthropology; forensics; medical anthropology, including the patterns and history of disease; primatology (the study of non-human primates); growth, development and nutrition; and other related fields. Read more about biological anthropology.

Religion, Theology, and Anthropology

Ancestor worship
Animatism
Animism
Anthropology of religion
Bayang medicine man
Buddhism
Comparative religion
Confucianism
Coptic monasticism
Creationism, beliefs in
Cults
Daoism
Death rituals
Evil
Ghost dance
God gene
Gods
Graves
Henotheism
Hinduism
Humanism
India, rituals of
Islam
Jews
Magic
Magic versus religion
Mana
Masks, ceremonial
Medicine man
Monasticism
Muslims
Native North American religions
Neurotheology
Pantheism
Pentecostalism
Peyote rituals
Polytheism
Religion
Religion and anthropology
Religion and environment
Religion, liberal
Religious rituals
Scientism versus fundamentalism
Shaman
Sorcery
Sufi Islam
Taboos
Taj Mahal
Totem poles
Totemism
Voodoo
Witch doctor
Witchcraft

The comparative study of religion formed a central building block of anthropology as the discipline emerged in the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. In the light of social evolutionary models of human development, religious practice was perceived as providing a powerful index of the mental and moral levels of so-called primitive peoples. James Frazer’s The Golden Bough, first published in 1890, traced magical and religious threads throughout history and weaved them into a pattern depicting the past and future progress of humanity, claiming to discern shifts from magical manipulation toward religious devotion and then ultimately in the direction of purely scientific modes of engaging the world. Inherent in Frazer’s work was also a juxtaposition that has reemerged, albeit in very different form, in contemporary writings (e.g., Cannell, 2006): Christianity as an object of study but also a mode of thought that has itself framed anthropological understandings of religion, temporality, and culture. Read more about anthropology of religion.

Sociology and Anthropology

African American thought
African Americans
African thinkers
Alienation
Amish
Balkans
Child abuse
Childhood studies
Civil disobedience
Class societies
Collective behavior
Communities
Complex societies
Crime
Criminology and genetics
Cuba
Cultural convergence
Culture of poverty
Culture shock
Deviance
Division of labor
Egalitarian societies
Euthenics
Extended family
Feminism
Folk culture
Folk speech
Folk speech
Folkways
Forms of family
Friendships
Gangs
Genocide
Gerontology
Globalization
Gypsies
History of city
Homosexuality
International organizations
Israel
Labor
Marxism
Midwifery
Nationalism
Nuclear family
Peasants
Population explosion
Rank and status
Rank societies
Secret ocieties
Sex identity
Sex roles
Sexual harassment
Sexuality
Slavery
Social anthropology
Social anthropology
Social Darwinism
Social sturctures
Socialist schools in Africa
Socialization
Sociobiology
Sociolinguistics
Sociology
Sociology of language use
Subcultures
Untouchables
Urban legends
Women’s studies
Xenophobia

Studies of sociology and anthropology have blended together as cultural anthropologists have attempted to draw comparisons among various societies and cultures. Identifying cultural characteristics became more difficult during the 20th century in response to two world wars. By the beginning of the 21st century, globalization had further blurred the once distinct lines between particular cultures, as the affairs of nations became more intertwined with those of others. Read more about sociology and anthropology.

Research and Theoretical Frameworks in Anthropology

Age of Enlightenment
Alchemy
Alienation
Altruism
Anthropic principle
Anthropocentrism
Anthropological models
Anthropology and business
Anthropology and epistemology
Anthropology and sociology
Anthropology of men
Anthropology of religion
Anthropology of women
Anthropomorphism
Ape biogeography
Apollonian
Aquatic ape hypothesis
Arboreal hypothesis
Architectural anthropology
Artificial life
Aubdivisions of anthropology
Beliefs in creationism
Big bang theory
Cardiff giant hoax
Catastrophism
Chaos theory
Chaos theory and anthropology
Characteristics of anthropology
Characteristics of culture
Cladistics
Communism
Complexity
Computers and humankind
Configurationalism
Conflict
Cosmology and sacred landscapes
Creationism versus geology
Critical realism
Critical realism in ethnology
Cross-cultural research
Cultural conservation
Cultural constraints
Cultural ecology
Cultural materialism
Cultural relativism
Cultural survivals
Cultural tree of life
Culture
Culture and pesonality
Culture area concept
Culture change
Cybernetic modeling
Cybernetics
Darkness in El Dorado controversy
Darwinism versus Lamarckism
Degenerationism
Determinism
Dictatorships
Diffusionism
Dinosaurian hominid
Dynamic integrity
Education and anthropology
Egyptology
Emics
Enculturation
Enlightenment versus postmodernism
Entelechy
Environmental philosophy
Environments
Ethnocentrism
Ethnogenesis
Ethnohistory
Ethology and ethnology
Etics
Evolutionary anthropology
Evolutionary epistemology
Evolutionary ethics
Evolutionary humanism
Evolutionary ontology
Exobiology and exoevolution
Feminism
French structuralism
Functionalism
Future of anthropology
Futurology
Gaia hypothesis
Gemeinschaft
Geomythology
Gesellschaft
Global society
Global warming
Glottochronology
God gene
Hardy-Weinberg principle
Henotheism
Hermeneutics
Historicism
Hoaxes in anthropology
Hominization
Human canopy evolution
Human dignity
Humanistic anthropology
Humans and dinosaurs
Iceman
Ideology
Incest taboo
Instincts
Interpreting evidence
Jews and pseudo-anthropology
Kulturkreise
Legends
Lucy reconstruction models
Marxism
Memes
Migrations to the Western Hemisphere
Missing link
Mitochrondrial Eve
Monogenesis versus polygenesis
Myths and mythology
Nationalism
Naturalism
Nature
Nature and nurture
Neo-Darwinism
Neo-Freudianism
Neo-Marxism
Neurotheology
Non-Darwinian evolutionary mechanisms
Norms
Objectivity in ethnography
Orangutan-human evolution
Origin of bipedality
Paluxy footprints
Pantheism
Participant-observation
Philosophical anthropology
Philosophy of science
Phrenology
Physiognomy
Positivism
Postcolonialism
Postmodernism
Pragmatism
Psychic unity of humankind
Reciprocity
Religious humanism
Research in anthropology
Research methods
Revitalization movements
Role of human mind in nature
Sasquatch
Scientific method
Scientism versus fundamentalism
Secular humanism
Secularization
Social change
Social Darwinism
Sociobiology
Stereotypes
Structuralism
Superorganic
Syncretism
Teleology
Territoriality
Theories
Time in anthropology
Transformationalism
Unifromatarianism
Unity of humankind
Universals in art
Universals in culture
Universals in language
Values and anthropology
Verification in ethnography
Wolfian perspective in cultural anthropology
Women in anthropology
Women’s studies
Xenophobia
Yeti

Anthropologists usually mean by “theory” a particular theory—a functionalist, structuralist, or socio-ecological theory of social systems, for example. However, while “social facts” have been defined by Durkheim, along with method, and similar ideas used in other sociological theory traditions, the notion of a theory has been treated as something obvious or self-evident. How to test or formulate theories in general has been assumed or passed by, in general, and the ways in which theories explained their subject have been left unspecified. Read more about theory in anthropology.

Anthropology and EvolutionAnthropology is the study of humankind in terms of scientific inquiry and logical presentation. It strives for a comprehensive and coherent view of our own species within dynamic nature, organic evolution, and sociocultural development. The discipline consists of five major, interrelated areas: physical/biological anthropology, archaeology, cultural/social anthropology, linguistics, and applied anthropology. The anthropological quest aims for a better understanding of and proper appreciation for the evolutionary history, sociocultural diversity, and biological unity of humankind. Anthropologists see the human being as a dynamic and complex product of both inherited genetic information and learned social behavior within a cultural milieu; symbolic language as articulate speech distinguishes our species from the great apes.

Genes, fossils, artifacts, monuments, languages, and societies and their cultures are the subject matter of anthropology. The holistic approach is both intradisciplinary and interdisciplinary. It incorporates evidence from geology, paleontology, psychology, and history, among other special sciences. Anthropologists strive to present generalizations about the origin and evolution of our own species from remote hominid ancestors, as well as ideas about the emergence of social organizations and cultural adaptations. As a result of both research over scores of decades and the convergence of facts and concepts, anthropologists now offer a clearer picture of humankind’s natural history and global dominance.

With the human being as its focus, the discipline of anthropology mediates between the natural and social sciences while incorporating the humanities. Its acceptance and use of discoveries in biology, for example, the DNA molecule, and its attention to relevant ideas in the history of philosophy, such as the concepts presented in the writings of Marx and Nietzsche, make anthropology a unique field of study and a rich source for the relevant application of facts, concepts, methods, theories, and perspectives. Forensic anthropology, medical anthropology, business anthropology, and advocacy anthropology have emerged as significant areas of applied anthropology in the changing modern human world.

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