Education Research Topics

Education Research 1This list of education research topics is intended to provide a comprehensive background for those interested in researching issues involving schools, teaching, and studying. Modern education is an interdisciplinary field, including disciplines (to name just a few) such as history and sociology, as well as topical areas such as globalization and technology.
This list consists of more than 400 educational topics plus more than 100 biographies of important men and women in education. It lists all of the topics under one or more of the following topical areas:

• Arts, Media, and Technology
• Biographies of Important Figures in Education
• Curriculum
• Economic Issues
• Equality and Social Stratification
• Evaluation, Testing, and Research Methods
• History of Education
• Law and Public Policy
• Literacy
• Multiculturalism and Special Populations
• Organizations, Schools, and Institutions
• Religion and Social Values
• School Governance
• Sexuality and Gender
• Teachers
• Theories, Models, and Philosophical Perspectives

Education Research Topics

Arts, Media, and Technology in Education

1. Adaptive Technology
2. Aesthetics in Education
3. Arts Education Policy
4. Assistive Technology
5. Audiovisual Education, History of
6. Channel One
7. Computer-Assisted Instruction
8. Computing, Ethical Issues
9. Cultural Literacy
10. Digital Divide
11. Distance Learning
12. Folklore
13. Great Books of the Western World
14. Images of Teachers in Popular Culture
15. International Expositions
16. Internet, Social Impact of
17. Journalism and Education
18. Media Literacy
19. Multicultural Education
20. Popular Culture
21. Rap Music and Oral Literacy
22. Technoliteracy
23. Technologies in Education
24. Television, Public Educational
25. Video Games and Learning
26. Visual Instruction Movement

Important Figures in Education

27. Addams, Jane
28. Allen, Elizabeth Almira
29. Apple, Michael Whitman
30. Aristotle
31. Armstrong, Samuel Chapman
32. Arnold, Matthew
33. Bagley, William Chandler
34. Banks, James A
35. Bell, Terrel Howard
36. Bernstein, Basil
37. Binet, Alfred
38. Bloom, Benjamin Samuel
39. Blow, Susan Elizabeth
40. Bond, Horace Mann
41. Bourdieu, Pierre
42. Bowers, C. A. (Chet)
43. Bruner, Jerome S.
44. Callahan, Raymond Eugene
45. Carson, Rachel
46. Childs, John L.
47. Chomsky, Avram Noam
48. Clapp, Elsie Ripley
49. Coleman, James S.
50. Comenius, John Amos (Komensky)
51. Comer, James P.
52. Cooper, Anna Julia Haywood
53. Counts, George Sylvester
54. Covello, Leonard
55. Cremin, Lawrence Arthur
56. Cubberley, Ellwood P.
57. Curry, Jabez Lamar Monroe
58. Davis, Jackson
59. de Hostos, Eugenio Maria
60. Dewey, John
61. Dewey, Melvil
62. Du Bois, William Edgar Burghardt
63. Durkheim, Emile
64. Eisner, Elliot
65. Emerson, Ralph Waldo
66. Foucault, Michel
67. Freire, Paulo
68. Froebel, Frederick
69. Gardner, Howard
70. Goodman, Paul
71. Gramsci, Antonio
72. Greene, Maxine
73. Grumet, Madeleine
74. Haley, Margaret
75. Hall, G. Stanley
76. Harris, William Torrey
77. Herbart, Johann Friedrich
78. Hill, Patty Smith
79. hooks, bell
80. Hu Shih
81. Huebner, Dwayne
82. Illich, Ivan
83. Isaacs, Susan B.
84. Jackson, Philip W.
85. Jefferson, Thomas
86. Johnson, Marietta Pierce
87. Johnston, Frances Benjamin
88. Kallen, Horace Meyer
89. Kilpatrick, William Heard
90. Kincheloe, Joe
91. Kohlberg, Lawrence
92. Kozol, Jonathan
93. Ladson-Billings, Gloria
94. Locke, John
95. Macdonald, James
96. Mann, Horace
97. Martin, Jane Roland
98. McGuffey, William Holmes
99. McLaren, Peter
100. Meier, Deborah
101. Merleau-Ponty, Maurice
102. Mill, John Stuart
103. Montaigne, Michel de
104. Montessori, Maria
105. Newman, John Henry
106. Noddings, Nel
107. Ogbu, John Uzo
108. Ortega y Gasset, Jose
109. Owen, Robert
110. Peabody, Elizabeth Palmer
111. Pestalozzi, Johann Heinrich
112. Piaget, Jean
113. Pierce, John Davis
114. Pinar, William F.
115. Plato
116. Postman, Neil
117. Pratt, Caroline
118. Ravitch, Diane
119. Rice, Joseph Mayer
120. Richman, Julia
121. Rogers, Carl R.
122. Rogers, William Barton
123. Rosenblatt, Louise
124. Rousseau, Jean-Jacques
125. Rugg, Harold
126. Salmon, Lucy Maynard
127. Sanchez, George I.
128. Sarason, Seymour B.
129. Scheffler, Israel
130. Schon, Donald Alan
131. Schubert, William H.
132. Schwab, Joseph J.
133. Schweitzer, Albert
134. Sizer, Theodore R.
135. Skinner, Burrhus Frederic
136. Socrates
137. Spencer, Herbert
138. Steiner, Rudolf
139. Terman, Lewis Madison
140. Thoreau, Henry David
141. Thorndike, Edward Lee
142. Torrance, Ellis Paul
143. Tyler, Ralph Winifred
144. Vygotsky, Lev
145. Washington, Booker Taliaferro
146. Webster, Noah
147. Weil, Simone
148. Wheelock, Lucy
149. Whitehead, Alfred North
150. Wiggin, Kate Douglas
151. Willis, Paul
152. Wollstonecraft, Mary
153. Woodson, Carter Godwin
154. Young, Ella Flagg

Curriculum

155. Abstinence-Only Sexual Education
156. Afrocentric Education
157. Alternative Schools
158. Antiracist Education
159. Arts Education Policy
160. Biography
161. Catechisms
162. Citizenship Education
163. Classical Curriculum
164. Comparative and International Education
165. Comprehensive High Schools
166. Confederate Textbooks
167. Cooperative Learning
168. Critical Geographies of Education
169. Critical Literacy
170. Critical Mathematics
171. Critical Psychology
172. Critical Thinking
173. Cultural Literacy
174. Cultural Pluralism
175. Cultural Studies
176. Culturally Responsive Teaching
177. Curriculum Challenges in Schools
178. Curriculum Theory
179. Delinquency Education
180. Democracy and Education
181. Discrimination and Prejudice
182. Drug Education
183. Ecojustice and Social Justice
184. Engineering Education, Origins and History of
185. Foreign Language Instruction
186. Hidden and Null Curriculum
187. HIV/AIDS
188. Holocaust Education
189. Immigrant Education: Contemporary Issues
190. Indigenous Knowledges
191. Life Adjustment Movement
192. Life Histories
193. Mainstreaming
194. Manual and Industrial Training
195. Medical Education
196. Migrant Education
197. Miseducation
198. Moral Education
199. Multicultural Education
200. New England Primer, The
201. Normal Schools, History of
202. Nursing Education, History of
203. Oral History
204. Peace Education
205. Penmanship
206. Philosophy of Education
207. Phonics and Whole Language
208. Physical Education in American Schools
209. Place-Based Education
210. Postcolonialism
211. Postmodernism
212. Progressive Education
213. Psychoanalysis and Education
214. Queer Theory
215. Reading, History of
216. Religion in the Public School Curriculum
217. Rural Education
218. Science, Impact on Twentieth-Century Education
219. Science, Technology, and Education: Historical Perspectives
220. Service Learning
221. Social Justice, Education for
222. Social Studies Education
223. Spirituality and Schooling
224. Sputnik
225. Standards
226. Technoliteracy
227. Textbooks, History of
228. Trivium and Quadrivium
229. Values Education
230. Visual Instruction Movement
231. Visual Literacy
232. Work-Based Learning

Economic Issues in Education

233. Advertising in Schools
234. Boards of Education
235. Bureaucracy
236. Busing
237. Child Labor
238. Class Size
239. Commercialization of Schools
240. Company-Sponsored Schooling
241. Corporate Involvement in Education
242. Economic Inequality
243. Education and Economic Development
244. Family, School, and Community Partnerships
245. Federal and State Educational Jurisdiction
246. Fundraising in Schools
247. Great Depression
248. Hegemony
249. Homeless Children and Adolescents, Education of
250. Julius Rosenwald Fund
251. Lunch Programs
252. Migrant Education
253. Phelps Stokes Fund
254. Philanthropy, Educational
255. Privatization
256. School Funding
257. State Role in Education
258. United Negro College Fund
259. Vending Machines in Schools

Equality and Social Stratification in Education

260. Achievement Gap
261. Affirmative Action
262. Antiracist Education
263. Bilingual Education, History of
264. Civil Rights Movement
265. Colorblindness
266. Culture-Fair Testing
267. Desegregation
268. Digital Divide
269. Disabilities and the Politics of Schooling
270. Disabilities, PhysicalAccommodations for PeopleWith
271. Discrimination and Prejudice
272. Ecojustice and Social Justice
273. Economic Inequality
274. Educational Equity: Gender
275. Educational Equity: Race/Ethnicity
276. English-Only Movement
277. Equal Access Act
278. Gifted Education, Diversity Issues and
279. Gifted Education, Policy Issues
280. Global Child Advocacy
281. Head Start
282. Human Rights Education
283. Individuals With Disabilities Education Act
284. Learning Disabilities and English Language Learners
285. Learning Disabilities and Higher Education Access
286. Least Restrictive Environment
287. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered Students and Teachers: Rights of
288. Marxism
289. Mexican Americans and Access to Equal Educational Opportunities
290. Migrant Education
291. Minority Disproportionality in Special Education
292. Minority Student Access to Higher Education
293. Native American Education, History of
294. Postcolonialism
295. Privilege
296. School Choice
297. School Funding
298. “Scientific” Racism
299. Slave Codes and Literacy
300. Social Justice, Education for
301. Special Education, Contemporary Issues
302. Special Education, History of
303. Tracking and Detracking
304. Vulnerability
305. White Privilege

Evaluation, Testing, and Research Methods

306. Accountability
307. Achievement Gap
308. Achievement Tests
309. Authentic Assessment
310. Culture-Fair Testing
311. Educational Indicators
312. Educational Reform
313. Gallup Polls
314. Hawthorne Effect
315. High-Stakes Testing
316. History Standards, National
317. Intelligence, Theories of
318. Intelligence Testing
319. Mixed Methods Research
320. Nation at Risk, A
321. No Child Left Behind Act
322. Observation Research
323. Plagiarism
324. Pygmalion Effect
325. Qualitative Research
326. Standardized Testing
327. Teachers as Researchers
328. Testing, History of Educational
329. U.S. Department of Education

History of Education

330. Activism and the Social Foundations of Education
331. Activist Teachers
332. After-School Education
333. American Education, Themes in the History of
334. American Sign Language
335. Biliteracy
336. Catholic Education, History of
337. Chautauqua Movement
338. Child Labor
339. Committee of Eight
340. Committee of Fifteen
341. Committee of Seven
342. Committee of Ten
343. Community of Practice
344. Compensatory Education
345. Desegregation Academies
346. Early Childhood Education
347. Education in the New American Republic
348. Education, Aims of
349. Education, History of
350. Educational Anthropology
351. Educational Research, History of
352. Eugenics
353. Family Literacy
354. Folklore
355. Free School Movement
356. Gifted Education, History of
357. Globalization and Education
358. Higher Education, History of
359. Immigrant Education: History
360. Libraries, History of
361. Literacy in the South
362. Lyceum Movement
363. Mentoring, Youth
364. Phrenology
365. Physical Education, History of
366. Playgrounds
367. Principalship, History of
368. Resistance, Student
369. School Architecture
370. Schools of Education
371. Social Action, Democratic Classrooms for
372. Social Frontier, The
373. Sociology of Education
374. Sports Mascots

Law and Public Policy

375. Academic Freedom
376. Affirmative Action
377. Alternative Accreditation for Teachers
378. Alternative Schools
379. Americanization Movement
380. Antiracist Education
381. Arts Education Policy
382. Athletics, Policy Issues
383. Bilingual Education, History of
384. Brown v. Board of Education
385. Bullying
386. Bureaucracy
387. Busing
388. Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education
389. Charter Schools
390. Child Abuse: Issues for Teachers
391. Child Labor
392. Church and State
393. Citizenship Education
394. Civil Rights Movement
395. Class Size
396. Clothing, Banning of Symbolic
397. Coeducation
398. Commercialization of Schools
399. Compulsory Educational Attendance Laws
400. Corporal Punishment
401. Culturally Responsive Teaching
402. Culture-Fair Testing
403. Desegregation
404. Disabilities and the Politics of Schooling
405. Disabilities, Physical Accommodations for People With
406. Dress Codes
407. Dropouts
408. Education Commission of the States
409. Educational Policy and the American Presidency
410. Educational Reform
411. English-Only Movement
412. Equal Access Act
413. Ethics Codes for Teachers
414. Federal and State Educational Jurisdiction
415. Foreign Language Instruction
416. Fundraising in Schools
417. GI Bill of Rights (Servicemen’s Readjustment Act)
418. Gifted Education, Policy Issues
419. Global Child Advocacy
420. Hate Crimes in Schools
421. Head Start
422. History Standards, National
423. Homeschooling
424. Ideology and Schooling
425. Immigrant Education: Contemporary Issues
426. Japanese Detention Camps, Education in
427. Kindergarten, History of
428. Learning Disabilities and Higher Education Access
429. Least Restrictive Environment
430. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered Students and Teachers: Rights of
431. Lunch Programs
432. Mainstreaming
433. Mental Retardation and Education
434. Mexican Americans and Access to Equal Educational Opportunities
435. Minority Student Access to Higher Education
436. Morrill Act
437. Nation at Risk, A
438. National Defense Education Act
439. Native American Higher Education
440. Natural Disasters
441. No Child Left Behind Act
442. Parent Rights
443. Physical Education in American Schools
444. Plagiarism
445. Pledge of Allegiance
446. Politics of Education
447. Privatization
448. Religion in the Public School Curriculum
449. Religious Fundamentalism and Public Education
450. Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC)
451. Rights of Students
452. Rights of Teachers
453. Rural Education
454. School Choice
455. School Funding
456. School Law
457. Sex Education
458. Sexual Misconduct by Educational Professionals
459. Sexual Orientation and Identity, Educational Policy on
460. Single-Sex Education
461. Small Schools Movement
462. Smith-Hughes Act
463. Socialist Education and U.S. Children
464. Special Education, Contemporary Issues
465. Sputnik
466. Standardized Testing
467. Standards
468. State Role in Education
469. Surveillance in Schools
470. Teacher Certification
471. Teacher Preparation
472. Testing, History of Educational
473. Title IX
474. United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child
475. U.S. Department of Education
476. Vending Machines in Schools
477. Violence in Schools

Literacy

478. Adult Education and Literacy
479. Biliteracy
480. Deaf Culture
481. Family Literacy
482. Literacy in American Culture
483. Literacy in the Colonial Era
484. Literacy in the South
485. Slave Codes and Literacy

Multiculturalism and Special Populations

486. Adult Education and Literacy
487. African American Education
488. African American Education: From Slave to Free
489. African American Private Academies
490. Asian American Education
491. Biracial Identity
492. Black English Vernacular
493. Blind, Education for the
494. Colorblindness
495. Cross-Cultural Learning in Adults
496. Deaf Culture
497. Deaf, Education for the
498. Disabilities, PhysicalAccommodations for PeopleWith
499. Drug-Exposed Children
500. Global Awareness Exchange
501. Globalization and Education
502. Hispanic Education
503. Homeless Children and Adolescents, Education of
504. Immigrant Education: Contemporary Issues
505. Learning Disabilities and English Language Learners
506. Learning Disabilities and Higher Education Access
507. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered Students: Advocacy Groups for
508. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered Students and Teachers: Rights of
509. Mental Retardation and Education
510. Mexican Americans and Access to Equal Educational Opportunities
511. Migrant Education
512. Minority Disproportionality in Special Education
513. Minority Student Access to Higher Education
514. Multicultural Education
515. Multiculturalism, Philosophical Implications
516. Muslim Students in U.S. Schools
517. Native American Higher Education
518. Prison Education
519. Rap Music and Oral Literacy
520. Rural and One-Room Schools
521. Rural Education
522. Special Education, Contemporary Issues
523. Tribal Colleges
524. Whiteness and Education
525. White Privilege

Organizations, Schools, and Institutions

526. African American Private Academies
527. Alternative Schools
528. American Federation of Teachers
529. American Labor Colleges
530. Anna T. Jeanes Foundation
531. Archives and Library Collections on Education
532. Boards of Education
533. Boston Latin School
534. Boy Scouts of America
535. Carlisle Barracks School
536. Charter Schools
537. Children’s and Educational Museums, History of
538. Comprehensive High Schools
539. Correspondence Schools
540. Dalton School
541. Desegregation Academies
542. Education Commission of the States
543. Freedmen’s Bureau
544. General Education Board (1901–1964)
545. Girl Scouts of America
546. Highlander Folk School
547. Historically Black Catholic Schools
548. Historically Black Colleges and Universities
549. History of Education Society
550. Holmes Group
551. Horace Mann School
552. John Dewey Society
553. Laboratory School, University of Chicago
554. Museums
555. National Education Association
556. New Harmony
557. Organizations for Teacher Educators
558. Parent Teacher Association (PTA)
559. Park Schools
560. Peabody Education Fund
561. Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC)
562. Rosenwald Schools
563. Rural and One-Room Schools
564. Southern Regional Education Board
565. Spelman College
566. Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
567. Students for a Democratic Society
568. Summerhill
569. Tribal Colleges
570. U.S. Department of Education

Religion and Social Values

571. Activism and the Social Foundations of Education
572. Catholic Education, History of
573. Catholic Schools, Contemporary Issues
574. Child Abuse: Issues for Teachers
575. Church and State
576. Civil Rights Movement
577. Ecojustice and Social Justice
578. Ethical Issues and School Athletics
579. Ethics and Education
580. Eugenics
581. Gangs in Schools
582. Hate Crimes in Schools
583. Historically Black Catholic Schools
584. Human Rights Education
585. Ideology and Schooling
586. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered Students and Teachers: Rights of
587. Parent Rights
588. Religion in the Public School Curriculum
589. Religious Fundamentalism and Public Education
590. Rights of Students
591. Rights of Teachers
592. Sexual Misconduct by Educational Professionals
593. Shaker Education
594. Social Justice, Education for
595. Spirituality and Schooling
596. Teachers, Religious Values of
597. United Nations Convention of the Rights of the Child
598. Violence in Schools

School Governance

599. Athletics, Policy Issues
600. Bullying
601. Bureaucracy
602. Busing
603. Cheerleading
604. Clothing, Banning of Symbolic
605. Computing, Ethical Issues
606. Corporal Punishment
607. Dress Codes
608. Dropouts
609. Ethical Issues and School Athletics
610. Ethics and Education
611. Ethics Codes for Teachers
612. Gangs in Schools
613. Homework
614. Mainstreaming
615. Mentoring, Youth
616. Plagiarism
617. Principalship, History of
618. Rights of Students
619. Rights of Teachers
620. School Choice
621. School Funding
622. School Governance
623. School Law
624. Scientific Management
625. Sex Education
626. Sexual Misconduct by Educational Professionals
627. Sexual Orientation and Identity, Educational Policy on
628. Sports Mascots
629. Superintendency
630. Surveillance in Schools
631. Vending Machines in Schools
632. Video Games and Learning

Sexuality and Gender

633. Abstinence-Only Sexual Education
634. Athletics, Policy Issues
635. Boy Scouts of America
636. Coeducation
637. Compulsory Heterosexuality
638. Declarations on Women’s Rights
639. Dress Codes
640. Dropouts
641. Drug Education
642. Educational Equity: Gender
643. Feminist Theory in Education
644. Feminization of the Teaching Profession
645. Gender and School Violence
646. HIV/AIDS
647. Homophobia and Schools
648. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgendered Students: Advocacy Groups for
649. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered Students and Teachers: Rights of
650. Queer Theory
651. Sex Education
652. Sexual Orientation and Identity, Educational Policy on
653. Sexuality, Gender, and Education
654. Single-Sex Education
655. Social Foundations of Education: Feminist Perspectives
656. Stereotypes of Teachers
657. Women, Higher Education of

Teachers

658. Activist Teachers
659. Alternative Accreditation for Teachers
660. First-Person Accounts of Teaching
661. Images of Teachers in Popular Culture
662. Organizations for Teacher Educators
663. Parent Rights
664. Parent Teacher Association (PTA)
665. Schools of Education
666. Teacher Alienation and Burnout
667. Teacher Attitudes Toward the Teaching Profession
668. Teacher Beliefs About Students
669. Teacher Certification
670. Teacher Education in a Global Context
671. Teacher Preparation
672. Teacher Recruitment
673. Teachers as Researchers
674. Teacher Satisfaction
675. Teachers College, Columbia University
676. Teachers, Literary Portrayals of
677. Teachers, Professional Status of
678. Teachers, Religious Values of
679. Teaching Profession, History of

Theories, Models, and Philosophical Perspectives

680. Action Research in Education
681. Active Learning
682. Adult Education and Literacy
683. Authentic Assessment
684. Chaos Theory
685. Community of Practice
686. Comparative and International Education
687. Complexity Theory
688. Constructivism
689. Context in Education
690. Critical Geographies of Education
691. Critical Literacy
692. Critical Mathematics
693. Critical Psychology
694. Critical Race Theory
695. Critical Theory
696. Critical Thinking
697. Cultural Capital
698. Cultural Studies
699. Culture Epoch Theory
700. Curriculum Theory
701. Dalton Plan
702. Deskilling
703. Disability Studies
704. Discursive Practices
705. Education, Aims of
706. Educational Transfer
707. Educationese Hegemony
708. Feminist Theory in Education
709. Gary (Indiana) Model
710. Hampton Model
711. Hawthorne Effect
712. Head Start
713. Holistic Education
714. Ideology and Schooling
715. Intelligence, Theories of
716. Local Knowledge
717. Marxism
718. Mixed Methods Research
719. Models and Methods of Teaching
720. Multiculturalism, Philosophical Implications
721. New Harmony
722. Observation Research
723. Paideia
724. Performance Theory
725. Philosophy of Education
726. Place-Based Education
727. Postcolonialism
728. Postmodernism
729. Praxis
730. Project Method
731. Pygmalion Effect
732. Qualitative Research
733. Reconceptualist Models of Education
734. Reggio Emilia Approach
735. Reproduction, Educational
736. “Scientific” Racism
737. Semiotics
738. Small Schools Movement
739. Social Action, Democratic Classrooms for
740. Social Capital
741. Social Construction of Disability
742. Vulnerability
743. Waldorf Education

History of American Education

744. Colonial Beginnings
745. Early Textbooks
746. Teachers in the Early and Middle Nineteenth Century
747. The Common School Movement
748. The McGuffey Readers and Textbook Depictions of Teachers
749. Catholic Schools and the Separation of Church and State
750. The Education of African Americans
751. The Education of Native Americans
752. Frontier Teachers and Schools
753. Kindergartens
754. International Expositions
755. Frances Benjamin Johnston and the Washington, D.C., Schools
756. Exhibit of American Negroes: Exposition Universelle de 1900
757. Immigration and Education
758. Progressive Reform and Schooling
759. Lewis W. Hine and the Child Labor Movement
760. Reading and Libraries
761. Educational Cartoons and Advertisements
762. Pledge of Allegiance
763. Printed Records and Photographs of School Activities and Personnel
764. Students With Special Needs
765. Transportation
766. Compulsory Education and Truancy
767. The Farm Security Administration’s Photographs of Schools
768. Civil Rights

Education Research 2In creating this list and topical essays, eleven disciplinary and conceptual areas upon which the field is largely based were identified. Each of these areas has been assigned an anchor essay that has been written by an expert in that area. These include disciplinary areas such as comparative education, educational anthropology, educational sociology, the history of education, and the philosophy of education. Topical areas include cultural studies and education, ecojustice education and cultural studies, globalization and education, multiculturalism, policy studies, and technologies in education. Many of the topics overlap. Some represent emerging areas that are important to the field such as cultural studies, globalization and education, ecojustice, and technologies in education. Others are more traditional and have a longer history such as the history of education and the philosophy of education. Arguments could be made for including additional areas or for precluding some of the topics that have been included.